2014 Research

The Delaware Soybean Board funded eight research projects ranging from the two-spotted spider mite to the impact of Soybean Necrotic Vein Virus.

Management of slugs in Delaware soybean fields; Joanne Whalen and Bill Cissel (University of Delaware); ($0).   (2013 Project was extended.)

The research team will:

  • Determine the economic loss attributed to slugs in Delaware no-till soybean fields; and
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of alternative chemistries for slug management in soybeans.

Final 2014 Delaware Soybean Board Report – Slug Management in Soybeans – Dec 3, 2014

Management of two-spotted spider mite in Delaware soybean fields; Bill Cissel and Joanne Whalen (University of Delaware); ($0).

The research team will:

  • Document the economic loss caused by two-spotted spider mites in Delaware soybean fields; and
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of labeled and non-labeled insecticides and miticides for two-spotted spider mite management in soybeans.

Final 2013-2014 Delaware Soybean Board Report- Two Spotted Spider Mite Management in Soybeans

Evaluating the Response of Full Season and Double Cropped Soybean in Narrow and Wide Rows to Various Soil Moisture Levels; Cory Whaley, James Adkins and Phillip Sylvester (University of Delaware); ($15,134).

With over 25% of the tillable land in Delaware under irrigation and the importance of soybeans as a rotational crop, it has become evident that improved irrigation management practices are necessary to maximize soybean yields and profitability.

Recently, there have been a few Delaware soybean growers reporting irrigated yields well above average. Proper irrigation management is a major factor in maximizing soybean yield. Furthermore, several cases of above average yields have been reported with soybeans planted in wide (30 and 38 inch) rows instead of the commonly planted 7.5 inch and 15 inch row widths.  Many growers have expressed a renewed interest in planting soybean in wide rows with a row crop planter as an alternative to using a grain drill due to improved seed spacing and emergence when planting into crop residue and reduced seed costs.

There has been a very limited amount of irrigation management research conducted on soybean in the Mid-Atlantic region.  Research conducted in other areas of the U.S. has limited adaptability to Delaware due to climate and soil differences.  In addition, there is little information available on the effect of row width on irrigated soybean. New research on irrigation strategies and row width is necessary to maximize the yield of full season and double cropped soybeans in Delaware.

Project Objectives:

  • Evaluate the effects of various soil moisture levels and row widths on growth and yield of full season and double cropped soybeans;
  • Determine the optimal irrigation management strategy for full season and double cropped soybeans to maximize yield  and profitability; and
  • Determine the optimal row width for irrigated full season and double cropped soybeans to maximize yield and profitability.

Final Report to DSB – Irr x Row – 2014 – Final

Management of Palmer amaranth in soybean; Mark VanGessel (University of Delaware); ($7,742).

The research objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness of various approaches for Palmer amaranth control.

Project Objectives:

  • Determine effective herbicide programs for herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth biotypes with Roundup Ready, Liberty Link, and conventional soybeans;
  • Evaluate various herbicide options for control of Palmer amaranth in double-cropped soybeans; and
  • Evaluate the usefulness of residual herbicides when applied as a tank mixed partner for POST applications.


Re-thinking no-till weed control for soybeans; Mark VanGessel (University of Delaware); ($7,856).

This basic weed research program will determine best weed control management practices for Delaware soybean farmers.

Project Objectives:

  • Evaluate various approaches and timing for burndown applications for no-till soybeans;
  • Evaluate approaches for management of rye cover crops and winter annual weeds; and
  • Determine the need for residual herbicides to control weeds emerging shortly after herbicide application

DSB_14_NT Soybeans_final

Evaluating the distribution and impacts of Soybean Necrotic Vein Virus in Delaware; Nathan Kleczewski (University of Delaware); ($4,939).

Soybeans are susceptible to viruses, non-living packets of genetic code encapsulated within a protein coat.  Viruses are unique pathogens in that they grow and reproduce only inside living plant cells, using the plants own molecular machinery to reproduce.  Infected soybeans tend to be stunted and produce fewer pods.  Foliage may be distorted and have a mottled or mosaic appearance.  Seed may also be mottled and deformed.  Many symptoms of viral infection in soybeans resemble damage due to common fungal and nematode pathogens, insects, nutrient deficiencies, and even herbicide injury and often go unnoticed in fields.  If left unmanaged, severe yield losses can and do occur.

Project Objectives:

  • Determine the incidence and severity of Soybean Necrotic Vein Virus (SVNV) in full season and double crop soybeans in Delaware fields;
  • Estimate potential crop losses due to SVNV; and
  • Determine crop management practices and conditions that may be associated with SVNV incidence, severity, and yield loss.

SNVV Final Report 2014

Analyses of Phosphorus Origin in the Chesapeake Bay; Deb Jaisi (University of Delaware); ($19,182). (Co-funded with the Maryland Soybean Board).

Three major phosphorus sources have contributed to the degradation of water quality in the Chesapeake Bay: land driven phosphorus, mobilized phosphorus from bay sediments, and imported phosphorus from ocean.  One of the challenges faced is to interpret some of our present results is that we do not have sufficient information on the differences and variations of different land driven phosphorus sources. Previous results show that the bulk of agriculturally driven phosphorus retained in the particulate matter remains as unreactive phosphorus in the sediment in the Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus derived from dead phytoplankton is the most predominant phosphorus source that sustains dead zone and potentially refuels eutrophication. Because unreactive phosphorus does not play any role in water quality problems, this result indicates that comparing all phosphorus sources into a single group and presuming them equally responsible for water quality issue is not rational. This result will have significant impact once our results are published.

Project Objectives:

  • Collect and analyze samples from natural sources (soils, sediments), legacy phosphorus (stores of legacy phosphorus in soils and catchments), agricultural related sources (fertilizers and manures), and wastewater sources; and
  • Using an isotope database interpret data obtained from the bay to identify presence of different phosphorus sources in the bay as well as their relative roles on water quality issues in the bay.

(Project was extended; no report.)

Development of High Oleic/Low Linolenic Acid Soybeans Adapted to Delaware; Caleb Warrington, John Schillinger and Bill Rhodes (Schillinger Genetics, Inc.); ($16,500). (Co-funded with the Maryland Soybean Board). (cwarrington@schillingerseeed.com)

The USB has indicated that high oleic acid soybeans are needed to avoid further erosion of vegetable oil for food market. Schillinger Genetics has developed outstanding non-GMO high oleic Group IV soybean varieties for Delaware. They will add the low linolenic acid genes to  high oleic varieties to add shelf life and cooking stability to soybean oil comprised of high oleic (79-82%) and low linolenic (t2%).

Project Objectives: This grant would support the crossing, line selection process, yield testing in Delmarva and seed increase.

Control of Grape Hyacinth in Soybeans; Mark Van Gessel (University of Delaware) (2013 Project was extended)

DSB_14_Grape Hyacinth_Final